Electronic Booklet

Session A

Olivia Rogerson

Keywords: suicide behaviour; COVID-19; impulsivity; executive function.

Topic: Psychological Processes
Exploring the relationship between suicide vulnerability, impulsivity and executive functioning during COVID-19: A longitudinal analysis

Question: To explore the associations between, and changes in, suicide behaviour, COVID-related factors, executive functioning and impulsivity across the first UK lockdown.
Findings / Expected findings: Impulsivity and executive functioning remained stable across the first UK lockdown, whereas COVID-related stress, worry, and rumination decreased. Sub-group analysis revealed individuals with a history of suicide behaviour reported worse COVID-related stress, poorer executive function and greater impulsivity.
Meaning: Individuals with a history of suicide behaviour appear to be at greater risk of negative outcomes from COVID-19; experiencing poorer executive functioning, greater impulsivity and COVID-related stress, suggesting COVID-19 is disproportionately affecting individuals in society.
Madhav Bhargav

Keywords: adverse childhood experiences; college students; mental health; suicide ideation

Topic: Psychological Processes
Childhood Adversities and Suicide Ideation in College Students: Examining the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide

What are the associative and mediating factors between childhood adversities and suicide ideation in college students?
Findings / Expected findings: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey completed by 321 college students recruited from universities in Ireland. Ages ranged from 18-21 (n=176) to 22-25 years (n=145). Results revealed a significant direct effect of ACEs on SI meaning more accumulated ACEs were associated with higher SI.
Meaning: Findings suggest that ACEs have a detrimental impact on college students’ mental health. Results highlight the potential benefits of ACE-informed interventions that target TB and PB to countervail SI in college students.
Simo Raittila

Keywords: suicide; occupational groups; men; past trends

Topic: Epidemiology, Public Health and Community
Occupational class differences in male suicide risk in Finland from 1970 to 2014

Question: How have occupational class differences in working-age male suicide developed in the years 1970–2014 in Finland?
Findings / Expected findings: Suicide risk by occupational class was estimated for a 14-year period starting at seven census years. The risk has halved from what it was before the 1990s. The decrease was slower in manual workers, and the relative difference has thus grown larger. The 1990s’ depression affected lower non-manual employees most strongly.
Meaning: Socioeconomic differences in suicide are sensitive to periodic societal context. Services have been successful in decreasing suicides, but ways to help people in the more vulnerable groups are needed.
Emma Nielsen

Keywords: self-harm; harm minimisation; young people; strategies;

Topic: Intervention and Clinical Treatment
‘These things don’t work’: Time to rethink harm minimisation for self-harm?

Question: How are harm minimisation strategies viewed by young people who self-harm?
Findings / Expected findings: Predominant themes suggest that many young people viewed harm minimisation strategies as a proxy for self-harm as ineffective. Where such strategies were reported as helpful, their utility was reported to be short-lived or situation-specific. Findings from both studies indicate that some young people described using harm minimisation as a form of self-harm.
Meaning: Harm minimisation strategies should not be recommended in isolation and their use must be monitored. Further research is urgently needed to develop an evidence base that informs practice.
Liz Dudeney

Keywords: suicidality, pregnancy, postpartum, screening

Topic: Clinical Screening and Assessment
Measures of suicidality in perinatal populations: A systematic review

Question: What measures are used to assess suicidality in perinatal women? What are the psychometric properties of these measures?
Findings / Expected findings: The psychometric properties of nine suicidality measures were reported, across 31 studies. All measures primarily screened for depression, with either an item or subscale assessing a construct of suicidality. Suicidal ideation was assessed most frequently. Four measures were specifically developed for perinatal women.
Meaning: Further validation of measures is needed in perinatal women. Screening for suicidality in the context of depression may not detect all cases. Development of a measure specifically assessing suicidality in perinatal women may be warranted.
Molly McCarthy

Keywords: suicide; suicidal crisis; A&E; coding

Topic: Coding for
A&E departments need better coding practices for patients in suicidal crisis

Question: What are the limits to the current coding practices among A&E departments for patients in suicidal crisis?
Findings / Expected findings: Current A&E coding systems are limited, with the code for suicidal ideation rarely being used in practice. Coding guidelines result in inaccurate recording with the majority of suicidal presentations being recorded as ‘depression’ or anxiety’. A&E databases also only allow for one recorded diagnosis, thus, identifying individuals who have mental ill health related attendances with a non-psychiatry first diagnosis code (e.g., laceration) is not possible.
Meaning: The research and development of suicidal crisis monitoring systems is a key priority for health services and there is an urgent need to develop a national data collection tool to ensure accurate and timely data collection at A&E sites to inform better care and policy initiatives.

Session B

Bethany Cliffe

Keywords: self-harm; mHealth; digital interventions; scoping review

Topic: New Technologies for Risk Detection, Monitoring and Intervention
mHealth Interventions for Self-Harm: Scoping Review

Question: What mHealth interventions have been developed for self-harm, what are they like and how is their efficacy assessed?
Findings / Expected findings: 34 mHealth interventions for self-harm were identified within the literature. They were mostly smartphone apps or calling/texting services that were largely effective but not widely available. Outcomes typically focused on self-harm frequency and rarely considered other aspects, such as severity or other coping mechanisms.
Meaning: These findings identified numerous promising mHealth interventions for self-harm within the literature, but highlighted the need for inclusion of different outcome measures aside from self-harm frequency and wider dissemination and implementation of mHealth interventions.
Oliver Matias

Keywords: self-harm; psychosocial; intervention; sex

Topic: Intervention and Clinical Treatment
The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for self-harm in males compared to females: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Question: Is there a difference in the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for self-harm in males compared to females?
Findings / Expected findings: We are combining and updating two Cochrane reviews on [psychosocial] interventions for self-harm in adults and in children and adolescents but looking at outcomes by sex. Although not done before, based on literature, we anticipate that there will be a difference between males and females.
Meaning: Men are three times more likely than women to die by suicide in the UK. Hence, it is important to establish whether psychological interventions offered for self-harm are effective in this patient group or not.
Sarah Sullivan

Keywords: group treatments; auicide intervention; treatment integrity; cohesion

Topic: Intervention and Clinical Treatment
Group treatments for individuals at risk for suicide: A PRISMA scoping review (ScR)

Question: What trials for group treatments where suicidal thoughts and behaviors are openly discussed and addressed has been conducted? (1) What is known about the content of these treatments? (2) What is known about the outcomes of these trials? (3) What is known about the treatment integrity of these trials?
Findings / Expected findings: Only ten research reports of suicide-specific group treatments were identified in our PRISMA-ScR. In spite of many differences in setting, population, length, and frequency of sessions, all ten groups reported improvements in varying aspects of suicide symptoms. The only adverse impacts were reported by two studies wherein two (of 92) participants attempted suicide and a small number (7%) of adolescents reported feeling triggered with suicidal thinking during a session. Despite our focus on empirical data in this review, the methodological rigor of the studies evaluated was limited.
Meaning: Despite the paucity of group treatment research in which suicidal thoughts and behaviors are openly discussed, the outcomes of these treatments were promising in decreasing suicide risk. These results may be due to unfounded fears of contagion. Further implications of these findings are considered along with limitations that may have excluded clinical work from meeting inclusion criteria for this review. Nonetheless, this evidence suggests that, suicide-focused groups have great potential for prevention of suicidal symptoms and should be further expanded in the future.
Andre Mason

Keywords: education; reflective research; public awareness; theoretical frameworks

Topic: Epidemiology, Public Health and Community
Shifting the conversations, one class at a time: Understanding the effect of teaching suicide-related coursework within undergraduate students

Question: What is the effect of engaging undergraduate students in structured suicide-related research and course work?
Findings / Expected findings: Students reported that they developed an appreciation for the complexity of conducting suicide-related research. They described an enhanced awareness of risk and protective factors for suicide thoughts and behaviours, and how these contribute to suicide-related theory. Additionally, students reported increased levels of confidence discussing suicide.
Meaning: Engaging undergraduate students in suicide-related research and discussions not only provides academic learning opportunities (e.g. understanding theory, research processes) but helps to develop critical thinking and awareness about a serious global public health concern.
Parvathy Ramesh

Keywords: suicide; gender; media; mixed methods

Topic: Cultural Considerations and Specific Populations
Gender differences in media reporting of suicide in India

Question: Are there differences in how Indian newspapers report suicide among people of different genders?
Findings / Expected findings: Findings may reflect studies worldwide that have identified a gender bias in media reporting of suicide. While women’s suicides are framed as a result of interpersonal problems and emotional turmoil, men’s suicides are interpreted as acts of resistance against external circumstances, such as financial loss.
Meaning: The media reflects prevailing sociocultural attitudes towards suicide, and studies from multiple countries indicate that the media can influence suicidal behaviour. Understanding how the media reports suicide is essential in designing gender-sensitive suicide prevention programmes.
Hilary Causer

Keywords: postvention; student suicide; suicide loss; suicide survivors.

Topic: Cultural Considerations and Specific Populations
Bearing witness: The experiences of UK Higher Education Institution (HEI) staff following a student death by suicide

Question: How is a student suicide experienced by staff within a UK HEI and what are the features of that experience?
Findings / Expected findings: Participants’ perceptions of impact are informed by their experiences of undertaking tasks following a student suicide within the community of their HEI. Staff constructed ‘perceptions of closeness’ to the student who died whether or not they knew the student prior to their death.
Meaning: We may need to broaden the concept of ‘perceptions of closeness’ in the context of suicide. Tailored support is required to respond to the complexity of HEI staff needs following a student death by suicide.